As there are some different types of surrogacy there are also certain advantages and disadvantages regarding each of them separately and there are also some common pros and cons.
If for some reasons the couple is unable to conceive a baby the process of surrogacy gives them an obvious advantage to have a biological child. The biological child can be conceived with the help of insemination of the surrogate mother with an embryo that was made up of the intended parents’ egg and sperm. It is also possible for the intended parents to communicate and to have close relationship with the carrier in order to participate in pregnancy. But, unfortunately the surrogacy can also bring the intended parents a lot of troubles and frustrations.
First of all the excitement and anticipation during IVF treatment and throughout the pregnancy will be saddened for some couples by the cost of surrogacy as this is a very expensive solution to infertility and not every couple can afford it. In addition a lot of conflicts may be provoked between the surrogate mother and the intended parents concerning ways of managing the pregnancy as many couples would like to control the whole process, while the carrier might have a lot of her own thoughts how to behave during the pregnancy period.
The problem can also appear when the intended parents are afraid the surrogate mother won’t keep her promise and will keep the baby. The possibility of this to happen is small if the baby is entirely biological offspring of the intended parents but if the surrogate mother is the egg donor, she may actually have a legal right to the child and in some cases wouldn’t want to give the baby away. Such examples are rare but the intended parents are still frightened that a surrogate will change her mind about giving up the baby when she gives birth.
The advantage of the surrogate mother to be inseminated with the intended father’s sperm is that surrogacy is much cheaper as it excludes expensive medical therapy and costs for donor’s sperm. But the disadvantage is that it will be hard for the intended parents to find the surrogate as almost all of them seek not to have any genetic connection to the child.
If the intended mother can produce eggs but is unable to carry the fetus, surrogate may carry an embryo made from mother’s egg inseminated with the father’s sperm. In such case the surrogate will have no biological relation to the baby and the step-adoption usually will not be required. The disadvantage is that because another woman is giving birth to the child, some legal proceeding is necessary to institute the parental right, depending on where the baby was born.
If the surrogate mother carries the fetus created from the donor’s egg and father’s sperm, the advantage is that the baby will be the father’s biological offspring and will have no genetical relation to the surrogate. If the intended parents wish their child to have certain physiological characteristics, they can choose an ovum donor from the wide range offered by the clinics.